Far North at ancient times 1

The Far North was developed by ancient people long ago. Several thousands years ago people began living here, but they were few. Their traditional forms of deer breeding, hunting and fishing did not significantly change the northern environment.

It is considered that the attitude of the primitive hunter and stock-breeder towards nature and its gifts in most cases was thoughtless, and even hostile, that to cut the twig on which he sits is human. At best his behaviour could be called «the strategy of a provident predator». People stopped hunting animals, when they became rare, giving the rest to worn-out pastures. It is fair enough in regard to the North and its hardy northerners.

However there is no doubt that care for nature has existed here since time immemorial. Inhabitants of Chukotka and Alaska, for example, have always maintained rules of regulating walrus hunting along coastal rookeries. These rules were directed at saving walrus herds, in order to maintain their optimal numbers. These rules amaze modern zoologists with their simplicity and wisdom.

It is obvious and clear that ancient sea-hunters instinctively knew many features of their ecosystem. This knowledge has become known to science only in recent years.

Probably other northern nationalities developed similar hunting laws. Unfortunately their remote regions remain largely unexplored and the possibility of contact with such people becomes less and less probable, as their communities dwindle.

Meanwhile it is likely that those laws would be useful for the development of strategic relations of survival between human beings and the natural life, flora and fauna of the North..

Aren’t such hunting rules reasonable and eco-friendly?
«To be stingy, greedy — is offensive for men and women. «.
Do not hunt recklessly.
«It is necessary to eat everything you have got.
If you will not eat then why hunt?»
«Do not take bird’s eggs from their nests — birds will disappear».
«Do not ruin Arctic fox burrows».

It is remarkable nowadays to understand that northern nationalities in remote distant times created types of nature reserves in their homeland. There are many «sacred» places in the north- hills, rivers, capes, to name a few. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, natives of Kiev and Vladimir Russia, from Great Novgorod, to the Moscow state occupied coasts of the White Sea. They were merchants, hunters and fishermen.

In the seventeenth century Western Europe whalers and sea-hunters began to hunt in northern seas. At least a thousand ships annually came here. At the beginning of the last century whales were almost completely destroyed. And very soon other sea animals shared the lot of whales, the resources of seals were reduced too. At that time both in Europe, and in America demand for the blue fox rose, and northerners began to hunt Arctic Fox. In exchange for furs they received firearms. With the help of firearms it was easier to hunt wild deer and sea animals. Northerners selfishly began to take advantage of nature’s gifts and it is no wonder that these gifts have swiftly melted away.