Cybernetics

The word "cybernetics" originated from the Greek "Kibernetike", the Latin "gubernator" and the English "governor" all meaning, in one sense or another, "control", "management" and "supervision". More recently Norbert Wiener has used the word to name his book, which deals with the activity of a group of scientists engaged in the solution of a wartime problem and some of the math concepts involved. Nowadays the word has become associated with the solution of problems dealing with activities for computers. As such, the discipline must rely on the exact sciences as well as sciences such as biology, psychology, biochemistry and biophysics, neurophysiology and anatomy.
Before studying computer systems it is necessary to distinguish between computers and calculators. These terms have, by connotation, two distinctly different meanings. The term calculator will refer to a machine which can perform arithmetic operations, which is mechanical, which has a key-board input, which has manually-operated controls (examples: adding machines, desk calculators). The term computer will refer to automatic digital computers which can solve complete problems, are generally electronic, have various. Speed and general usefulness make a computer equivalent to thousands of calculators and their operators. The ability of electronic computers to solve math and logical problems, hereby augmenting the efficiency and productivity of the human brain, has made the sphere of their application practically boundless.