Environment and ecology — Окружающая среда и экология
The word environment means simply what is around us. Some people live in a town environment; for others, their environment is the countryside. Nowadays people understand how important it is to solve the environment problems that endanger people’s lives. The most serious environmental problems are: · Pollution in its many forms (water pollution, air pollution, nuclear pollution) · Noise from cars, buses, planes, etc. · Destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty · Shortage of natural resources (metals, different kinds of fuel) · The growth of population Water Pollution. There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as a dump. Many seas are used for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. This poisons and kills fish and sea animals. “Nuclear-poisoned” fish can be eaten by people. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them. There is not enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If people drink this water they can die too. It happens so because factories produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison water. Air pollution. Most of the pollution in big cities comes from cars and buses. More and more often people are told not to be in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution. Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. Both clean air and clean water are necessary for our health. If people want to survive they must solve these problems quickly. Man is beginning to understand that his environment is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That’s why people all over the world think and speak so much about ecology.