The History of the Olympic Games
Long ago ancient Greeks often waged wars. Small states suffered and lost much even if they did not take any side and stayed out of wars. The ruler of such a small state, Elis, wanted to live in peace with all neighbours. He was a good di plomat because his negotiations were successful and Elis was recognized a neutral state. To celebrate this achievement, he organized athletic games.
In the beginning this feast lasted one day, but later a whole month was devoted to it. All wars and feuds were stopped by special heralds who rode in all directions of Greece. The games were held every four years in Olympia on the territory of Elis. The first games which later were called the Olympic Games were held about a thousand years before our era. Usually the Olympic Games began before the middle of the summer. Best athletes arrived from many Greek states to Olympia to compete in running, long jumps, throwing of discus and javelin and wrestling. In the course of time fist fighting (boxing) and chariot races were also included in the Games.
All athletes took an oath that they had been preparing, well for the Games and promised to compete honestly and keep the rules of the sacred Olympics. Tbe athletes took part in all.kinds of competitions. Winners were called «olympionics», they were awarded olive wreaths and cups of olive oil. This tradition has survived. In our time sportsmen often get cups and wreaths for winning the first place in sports competitions. The olympionics of ancient Greece became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen to make honourary cups, many poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athletes. Sculptors made their statues which were put up at the birthplace of the winners.
The Olympic Games were accompanied by arts festivals. Poets recited their poems, singers sang hymns, dancers danced and orators pronounced speeches :— all this in honour of the sacred Games. Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of death penalty. There was a single exception, when a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the stadium in men’s clothes. That brave woman was spared the penalty because her son excelled in many events.
Magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures and made statues of marble and bronze, so now we can admire the corporal beauty of ancient and eternally young discus thrower, javelin bearer and others.
The Olympic Games had been held for about eleven hundred years, until the emperor Theodosius banned them for religious reasons in 394 A. D. The revival of the Olympic Games began long time afterwards, in 1892, when a young French teacher Pierre de Coubertiii made a public speech before the Union of French sports clubs in Paris. At that time many people in many countries practised various kinds of sports and games. They wanted to make friends and compete with sportsmen from other lands. Pierre de Coubertin understood the importance of sports which unified peoples of the world and served the cause of peace like in ancient time.
On the 23rd of June 1894 the International Congress of amateur sportsmen made an important decision: to revive the Olympic Games and to establish the International Olympic Committee which would be responsible for the administration of the modern Olympic Games. The first Committee consisted of 12 members. Now 82 members of the International Olympic Committee control the affairs of all member countries which joined the Olympic movement.
I What did ancient Greeks do long ago?
2. What did the ruler of a small state want to do?
3. Why did the ruler organize athletic games?
4. How long did the first feast last?
5. When did the Olympic Games begin?
6. How were the winners called?
7. What were the Olympic Games accompanied by?
8. Who was not allowed to take part in the Olympic Games?
9. When did the revival of the Olympic Games begin?