Thanksgiving

Almost in every culture in the world there is a celebration of thanks for rich harvest. The American Thanksgiving began as a feast of thanksgiving almost four hundred years ago.
In 1620, a religious community sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World. They settled in what is now known as the state of Massachusettes. Their first winter in America was difficult. They arrived too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover, half the colony died from desease. The following spring the Iroquois Indians taught them how to grow corn. Indians showed them also how to grow other crops and how to hunt and fish.
In the autumn of 1621 they got a beautiful harvest of corn, barley, beans and pumpkins. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so they planned a feast. Local Indian chief and ninety Indians were present. The colonists learned from Indians how to cook cranberries and dishes of corn and pumpkins.
In following years many of the colonists celebrated the harvest with a feast of thanks. After the United States gained independence, Congress recommended one yearly day of thaksgiving for the whole country. Later, George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Then, after the Civil war, Abraham Lincoln suggested the last Thursday in November to be the day of thanksgiving.
On Thanksgiving Day, family members gather at the house of an older relative, even if they live far away. All give thanks for everything good they have. Charitable organizations offer traditional meal to the homeless.
Foods, eaten at the first thanksgiving, have become traditional. The traditional thanksgiving meal consists of roast turkey stuffed with herb-flavoured bread, cranberry jelly, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. Other dishes may vary as to region: ham, sweet potatoes, creamed corn.

Questions:
1. Who were the people that started the celebrating of American Thanksgiving?
2. What difficulties did they face in their first winter in the New World?
3. What were’they taught by the American Indians?
4. Who participated in the first feast of Thanksgiving?
5. What is the date of Thanksgiving and how it was adopted?
6. What are the traditional plates on Thanksgiving?

Vocabulary:
Thanksgiving — День благодарения
thanksgiving — воздаяние благодарности
harvest — урожай
to settle — поселиться
to grow — выращивать
desease — болезнь
Iroquois Indians — индейцы из племени ирокезов
corn — кукуруза
crops — овощи
to hunt — охотиться
to fish — ловить рыбу
bountiful — обильный
barley — ячмень
beans — бобы
pumpkin — тыква
Civil war — гражданская война
charitable — благотворительный
stuffed turkey — фаршированная индейка
herb-flavored bread — хлеб с пряностями
cranberry — клюква
cranberry jelly — клюквенное желе
Clashed potatoes — картофельное пюре
ham — ветчина